2.2. Non-Radiative Forcing
Any change in the climate must involve some form of energy redistribution within the global climate system. Nevertheless, forcing agents which do not directly affect the energy budget of the atmosphere (the balance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing terrestrial radiation (see Figure 1.3), are considered to be non-radiative mechanisms of global climate change. Such agents usually operate over vast time scales (107 to 109 years) and mainly include those which affect the climate through their influence over the geometry of the Earth's surface, such as location and size of mountain ranges and position of the ocean basins.